Time Use between Work and Family over the Life Cycle: A Comparative Gender Analysis of Italy, France, Sweden and U.S.
Dominique Anxo, Växjö University
Lennart Flood, Goteborgs Universitet
Letizia Mencarini, University of Florence
Maria-Letizia Tanturri, Università degli Studi de Pavia
Ariane Pailhe, Institut National d'Études Démographiques (INED)
Anne Solaz, Institut National d'Études Démographiques (INED)
The aim of this work is to analyse cross-country disparities in time use over the life course in France, Italy, United States and Sweden, using data from the Time Use Surveys. We focus on gender differences in the allocation of time to market work, domestic work, care and leisure at specific stages of the life-cycle on a sample of adults. First, we describe the evolution of time use according to the major events in the life course, such as exiting the family of origin, family formation, childbearing, and retiring from work. Then, we focus on the correlates of time allocation in paid and unpaid work in a gender perspective with tobit models. Our results confirm that men's and women's profiles by life stages vary everywhere, but in differing degrees, depending on welfare regime, family and employment policies, as well as tax system. The gender gap is greater in Italy than anywhere else.